“Which protein product do I need?” This question comes up with some frequency when speaking with producers or dealers about the many CRYSTALYX® protein options available. Since we are entering the primary protein season of the year, I thought it would be wise to share a short refresher about the differences between livestock diet protein sources.
A protein tutorial
Natural or “true” protein refers to the nutrient coming from either plant sources (soybean, cottonseed and canola meal are all protein-rich byproduct examples) or animal sources (feather meal, blood meal and milk, to name a few) that are approved for ruminant feeding — although feather meal is the only animal protein source used in CRYSTALYX Brand Supplements. You may be wondering why this is. Feather meal originates from avian species and avoids animal products of mammalian origin. While non-protein nitrogen (NPN) is not a true protein but, rather, a source of nitrogen, it is used by rumen microbes to manufacture their own natural protein. Similarly, the same urea applied as a fertilizer to plants is used to manufacture plant protein. This rumen microbial protein is a major source of daily nutrition to the animal, often amounting to 50 percent or more of the daily protein requirement for cattle and small ruminants, as they digest this rich protein source. The key is that, for NPN to be utilized, the rumen needs to be functioning. As such, non-ruminants — such as pigs, chickens, horses and even young calves, lambs and kids — cannot utilize urea or NPN due to their lack of rumen microbes. However, calves, lambs and kids will develop the ability to convert NPN into microbial protein as the rumen develops from eating grains and forages.
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Plant and animal proteins tend to be broken down relatively slowly, over several hours, by rumen microbes and in the small intestine. On the other hand, NPN is utilized quickly by the microbes, so it is important not to overwhelm these microbial bugs with too much at one time. Just like providing fuel for a motor, too much can cause the engine to stall out, so it needs to be properly metered. In putting efficient diets together for cattle and other livestock, we try to focus on matching protein and energy sources that break down at a similar rate.
Making the right choice
Let’s focus on the initial question: when should you choose all-natural plant and animal sources, and when would NPN be of benefit? The answer is: it depends. When the focus is on very young calves (or lambs and kids), natural proteins will be utilized best, since the rumen is not yet fully developed. Most of their diet will be milk, plus whatever comes from grain, grass or hay. Urea is very soluble, meaning it dissolves into rumen solution quickly and is converted to ammonia, which is readily available for rumen microbes to utilize, as mentioned previously. Diets with medium- to low-quality hay, cornstalks or other dried forages will generally be fairly low in soluble protein, so the rumen microbes of older cattle can benefit from some urea in the diet. Matching this with a rapidly available energy source, such as molasses, helps accelerate microbial growth, which promotes efficient forage fiber digestion. Conversely, NPN will generally not benefit the diet in the spring when grass is rapidly growing, as wet grass contains relatively high levels of soluble protein already, so the CRYSTALYX advantage will come mostly from sugars in the molasses, plus mineral and vitamin fortification.
When the balance of ammonia builds up in excess of microbial protein growth, it will diffuse from the rumen into the blood. The liver will then pick up the excess ammonia, convert it back into urea and pass it back into the blood, where the kidneys will filter it out, and eventually, it will be excreted in the urine. This helps keep the body’s ammonia levels in check. An entirely different blog can — and probably will — be written describing how, when this system is overwhelmed with ammonia in the blood, urea toxicity can come into play. Thankfully, molasses, as a very soluble carbohydrate source, stimulates microbial growth and the utilization of ammonia to remove any risk of urea toxicity. The tightly controlled consumption of CRYSTALYX further protects cattle from issues related to over-consumption and eliminates the concern for urea toxicity.
As with any diet, balance is key. Rapidly available nitrogen, plus rapidly available sugars, helps the growth of fiber-digesting rumen microbes. Some less-rapidly available proteins/nitrogen are also necessary and are provided by natural protein sources that match with carbohydrate (energy) sources from the forage and grain portions of the diet. Complete the diet with the necessary minerals and vitamins and voilà: you get a healthy, high-producing herd of cattle.
CRYSTALYX for the win
There you have it. This is how CRYSTALYX supplements help to complete a ruminant diet for cattle, sheep, goats, etc. As we approach colder weather and the inclusion of hay, cornstalks or other low-protein dried forages in the diet, a blend of natural protein and urea — as found in products like BGF-20™ or BGF-30™ — can be beneficial for older cattle. In a blog released a few weeks ago, Tim Clark advised choosing a supplement with over 27 percent protein when feeding a forage testing less than 12 percent protein, or a 20-percent protein supplement if forage tests greater than 12 percent protein. Testing your forage to know the protein and energy content is a highly recommended practice for achieving proper balance for the herd.
Follow these recommendations with other CRYSTALYX products if you adjust the ration at different times. Breed-Up® products used prior to and following breeding are available in various protein options from 12 to 28 percent, as well as Breed-Up® Max with no protein. Products fed to younger animals without a fully-functioning rumen — such as Brigade®, Blueprint® Battalion®, Goat-lyx® and Sheep-lyx™ — all contain only natural protein sources.
Work with your local CRYSTALYX dealer to help match the right product(s) with the available feeds at your farm. Balancing the diet to let the rumen function in an optimal and safe manner will reduce the risk of over- and under-feeding protein.